Saturday, September 15, 2018

Gallbladder problem in the old people




Gallbladder is a small sac under the liver of the human body. The human liver produces bile and the gallbladder stores it and finally passes through the duct emptying the small intestine. Bile helps to digest the fats in the small intestine. When there is irritation in the walls of the gallbladder causing inflammation, it is known as  cholecystitis.sclerosing cholangitis,gallbladder cancer,gallbladder polyps, gangrene of the gallbladder and abscess of the gallbladder are its different kinds. Gallstones are formed when bile like cholesterol, bile salts and bilirubin block the flow of bile ducts  to the small intestine and helps to build up bile leading to necrosis or gangrene.
Different kinds of gallbladder diseases
 There are many types of gallbladder diseases. They are Gallstones, Inflamed gallbladder, Cholecystitis, Acute cholecystitis,Perforated  gallbladder,  Chronic cholecystitis, Sclerosing cholangitis, Gallbladder Cancer, Gallbladder polyps, Gangrene  of the Gallbladder and Abscess of the Gallbladder.
 Gallstones are formed when cholesterol, bile salts and bilurubin  form hard particles which block flow to the gallbladder. Overweight, diabetes, age over 60 years, female sex, Cirrhosis and taking estrogen are causes of gallstones.
Inflammed gallbladder, Cholecystitis: When there is sudden cholecystitis due to failure of the bile to leave the bladder due to obstruction of flow by the gallstone, damage of the gallbladder is caused . This problem is known as  Inflammed  gallbladder.
Acute Cholecystitis is the problem created by gallstones. It is seen in the upper right or middle side of the abdomen in the form of pain. The gallbladder shrinks when it creates chronic cholecystitis and becomes unable to store bile causing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and jaundice .This problem can cause fever,nausea, vomiting and jaundice.
Choledocholithiasis  is created when the gallbladder fails to help exit bile leading to inflammation  and prevention of flow of bile from the liver to the intestine. This problem causes pain in the upper abdomen,fever, jaundice, vomiting , nausea and colored stools.
Acalculous gallbladder disease has the symptoms of  inflammation in the gallbladder  caused by  heart, trauma and abdominal surgeries ,burns, infection in  the blood ,bacterial  and viral  illnesses .
 Biliary dyskinesia is caused due to lower level of gallbladder functions. Its main symptoms are pain in the abdomen after eating of fatty foods, nausea and indigestion.
 Sclerosing  cholangitis  is the problem in which inflammation and damage in the bile duct are seen .This problem usually does not show any symptoms  and in rare cases, it shows the symptoms like fever, jaundice, itching , upper abdominal pain and ulcerative colitis causing risks of liver cancer.
Gallbladder cancer is a difficult problem in treatment. It has different types  with difficulty in treatment.Gallstones are its common  risk factors. This problem may spread from the inner walls to the liver and other connected organs.
Gallbladder polyps develop in the gallbladder finally causing cancer .It shows no symptoms.
Gangrene of the gallbladder is the problem  caused when the patient is male and below the age of 45 years having nausea, diabetes, fever, vomiting and low blood pressure.
Gallbladder abscess is one type of gallbladder problem in which pus(an accumulation of white blood cells) is developed in the gallbladder causing severe pain at the right side of  the abdomen accompanied by  diabetes and heart problems.
 Porcelain gallbladder is the problem that is developed due to growth of muscular walls with calcium in the gallbladder making stiffness leading to risks of cancer.


Perforated gallbladder
If there is long time non treatment situation,a hole develops in the gallbladder wall . This type of gallbladder problem is known as perforated gallbladder.
Common bile duct infections
Sometimes,the bile duct gets blocked leading  to some infections. This problem is known as common bile duct infection.This situation develops due to delay in its treatment leading to a serious life thretening infection.
Dysfunctional gallbladder or chronic gallbladder disease
When there is repeated gallstone attacks,the gallbladder may be permanently damaged.This situation is called dysfunctional gallbladder.The symptoms of this problem indigestion, stomach fullness,gastritis  and diarrhea.
Gallstone ileus  is a fatal problem in which the gallstones are transferred to to the intestine causing blockage to it.The blockade may be removed through surgical operations.
Symptoms
The main symptoms of gallbladder problems are:
 (a) pain in the middle or upper right portion of the abdomen, the chest and the back;
(b)nausea and vomiting ;
(c) feverand diarrhea;
(d)changes in bowel movements and bowel habits, light colored stool  problems;
(e) changes in color of urine i. e. darker than normal urination;
(f)failure of the liver bile to reach the intestine and change of color of  the skin into  yellow;
(g)obstruction in the intestine ;
(h) perforation in the gallbladder;
(i) bacterial contamination in the abdomen;
(j) bacterial contamination in the abdomen ;and
(k) change in the cells to convert into cancerous tumor.

Diagnosis
 Thorough examination of the abdomen and study of medical history help to diagnose gallbladder problems. When there is pain in the abdomen ,x-ray of the chest and the abdomen may be helpful for its diagnosis.
When ultrasound test fails to diagnose, HIDA scan can be used for its  correct diagnosis.HIDA is a test in which a radioactive  substance is injected into the vein and observed after sometime. CT scan and MRI scan are also done for its diagnosis also. In fine, imaging tests of the gallbladder for examining the bile ducts and blood tests are effective tests for diagnosis of this disease.
 Treatment
 Excessive body weight and diabetes are responsible for gallbladder diseases in most cases. Treatment of gallbladder includes removing the gallbladder through surgery, breaking up of the gallstones by medication and using antibiotics . Gallbladder removal surgery known as leparoscopic surgery is the most effective treatment in this problem. A thin  tube with a small video camera is inserted into the abdomen. The camera transmits the internal  images to the outside video monitor. The gallbladder is removed by watching this monitor. Majority of  treatments are done through this process. A very small number of patients need open surgery in this problem when there is much inflammation or infection in the gallbladder .


Prevention
Women and male people above the age of 40 years and family history with gallstone problems are at higher risks of gallbladder problems. Some diets may cause development of gallbladder stones .High fiber foods like beans, peas, fruits, whole grains and vegetables and reducing sugar intake help prevention of gallstones. White rice, bread and pasta like refined grains and sweets create higher risks of this problem and this is why, these food items should be strictly avoided. On the other hand, brown rice, wheat bread, fish fats and olive oil are helpful in avoiding this problem.
Risk factors
Gallstones,porcelain gallbladder, female gender and old age are high risk factors of gallbladder disease. Pregnancy in women with obesity and reduced high density cholesterol  are risk factors for women also. Female sex hormones, use of oral contraceptives and therapies for replacement of estrogen are other risk factors of this problem.


Monday, December 25, 2017

Dehydration in the elderly people



Dehydration means abnormal loss of body water. In other words, it is deficit of total body water when water loss or excessive exercise or disease like diarrhea and cholera or  excessive weather temperature exceeds water intake  .Water loss from 5% to 8% may cause fatigue and dizziness. When there is loss of body water more than 10%, physical and mental deterioration associated with thirst  can take place.
The most common types of dehydration is based on serium levels .Hiptonic or hypernatremics  primarily  refer as  loss of water and isotonic or isonatraemic refer as electrolytes. Out of the three types, the most common type of dehydration is isotonic dehydration.Dehydration in the severe stage in the elderly people may be fatal and serious. They  are at higher risks when they do not drink plenty of water or sweat severely.
Symptoms
The main symptoms of dehydration are thirst, headache, general discomfort and neurological problems like headache,  loss of appetite, less urination, confusion , tiredness, purple finger nails and seizures. The symptoms gradually get severe with greater water loss. Thirsty diminishes with the increase of age over 50 years. In fine, it can be told that elderly people suffer from dehydration in larger numbers. The main symptoms of dehydration are thirst, headache, general discomfort, loss of appetite, decreased urine flow , mental confusion, tiredness, purple finger nails, and seizures. Dehydration and hypovolemia may occur in the same person simultaneously .In fine, thirst, sleepiness, urinary tract infections ,dry mouth, dry tongue, headache, difficulty in  urine flow, dizziness, weakness, sleepiness, pain in  arms and legs , dry skin, fever, irritation, constipation ,etc are its prominent symptoms .In severe cases, the main symptoms are confusion, irritability, lethargy, fainting, low urine output, severe   muscle contractions in arms, legs, stomach and back, low blood pressure, heart failure ,etc.
Causes
The causes of dehydration are hot and humid weather, habitation at high altitudes,old age, infant age, childhood and old age suffering from chronic illness .Thirst and  inadequate access to free water due to excessive water loss cause dehydration . Sensible loss of water like osmotic dieresis, sweating ,vomiting , diarrhea and water loss caused through skin and respiratory tract are also its causes. The main causes of this problem are: (a) impaired thirst due to insensible respiratory losses, fluid loss due to urinary losses in hyperglycemia and transient hypernatremia caused by severe exercise, and (b) Sodium excess, hypertonic sodium intake without proper water intake. In elderly people, blunted response to thirst and insufficient and non free access to water in case of water losses are principal causes of  this problem.
Symptoms
The principal symptoms for dehydration are:
·         Thirst
·         Headache
·         Weakness
·         Dizziness
·         Sleepiness
·         Urinary tract infections
·         Fever
·         Irritation
·         Constipation
·         Dark yellow urination
·         Dry skin, etc.
Treatment
 The main treatment of dehydration includes drinking of sufficient water and stopping loss of fluid. Solid foods are responsible for fluid loss when there is vomiting, and diarrhea. Concentration and frequent urination can ensure normal dehydration status. Sometimes, replenishment of necessary water and electrolytes can ensure normal state of hydration. Non drinking of fresh water can worsen this condition. Dehydration associated with fainting, unconsciousness or other severe conditions ,quick treatment should be ensured by taking oral or intravenous water into the body.
 Prevention
Thirst is the main cause of dehydration. Exercising  ,warm weather or decreased thirst response, additional water may be necessary for preventing dehydration .Normal water loss takes place while in rest and water loss through the lungs as water vapor. Moreover, additional water loss takes place through kidney urination and diarrhea.
Water loss may increase remarkably in warm or humid weather. Sodium is lost when there is loss of large amount of water. Total loss of sodium reaches 10% of total body stores due to exercising and sweating .Majority of people can tolerate these losses since there is inclusion of sodium in drinks. Sodium intake possesses little or no risk so long as the fluids are hypotonic. Severity in dehydration needs urgent medical treatment .Drinking excess water and staying away from bright sunrays should be ensured. Always one bottle of water or juice should be kept in hand and  regularly used.












Diverticulitis in the elderly people




 Diverticulitis is a problem that causes pains. It is a problem caused in the colon. When there is no fiber to add to the stool, the work of the colon gets harder . In fine, small sacs formed in the intestine cause the pain. It is an elderly disease in which pouches are formed in the colon wall. This problem takes place when these pouches are inflamed or infected.
Causes 
The actual cause of diverticulitis is uncertain. It can develop when it is  roughly guessed that bacteria goes in the large intestine.  Of course,no doctor can ensure the actual cause of this  problem. It occurs when small sacs or diverticuli  walls  develop  in the large  intestine which cause inflammation .The colon has no other alternative but  to work harder for pushing the stool forward  when there is no fiber to add bulk to the stool. In many cases, bacteria grown in the pouches causes inflammation or infection.
Symptoms
The sign and symptom of diverticulitis is frequent pain in the abdomen. It is the main symptom of this problem .The lower portion of the human body known as stomach and bowel  is attacked with pain. Its other symptoms include fever, chills, gastritis, diarrhea, nausea, constipation and vomiting. The most significant symptom  of diverticulitis  is  occasional pain in the left side of the abdomen when there is blockade in the intestine . Constipation and fever are common problems in diverticulitis also.

Risk factors
Elderly people are primarily attacked with this disease. It generally develops  with the increase of age. People eating diets poor in fiber are at higher risks of being attacked with this problem in large numbers. 
Diagnosis
 Medical and complete physical examination of  the whole body help to diagnose this problem. Particular testing is highly necessary to ensure the problem. Some x-ray tests help to diagnose it  to some extent. The tests like colonoscopy and x-ray of the colon are very important ones in this regard. Many balloon like sacs develop in the large intestine partly in the lower portion. gastro- enterologists  or proctologists can conduct such tests.
 An x-ray can also help diagnose this problem .It is a barium enema inserted in the colon . X-rays are done to assess whether the sac is present along the colon wall or not.
Treatment
Treatment of diverticulitis is mainly dependent   on complications .Diet change to low fiber diet, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-spasmodic drugs and oral antibiotics  are done effectively. When the case gets severe due to intestinal blockage or rupture ,oral antibiotic is effective. When there is fever, abdominal pain, localized abdominal pain lasting for longer period and stool in the blood serious treatment options become essential.
 In fine, treatment of diverticulitis depends on different complications. If necessary, dietary measures like taking low fiber diets and anti-inflammatory drugs and oral antibiotic.  Treatment   becomes essential when there is fever of more than 100*F, severe abdominal pain, bleeding in the stool, etc.
Prevention
  
 Adding fiber to the diet, developing  regular bowel habits, avoiding  laxatives and pain killers, trying to prevent constipation, drinking sufficient water daily and undergoing regular exercise are preventive measures in this problem.

Saturday, October 7, 2017

Atherosclerosis in the elderly people

Atherosclerosis means hardening of the arteries. It affects the medium and large arteries in the human body. Cholesterol, fatty substances and waste products in body cells, calcium and fibrin form plaques and clot the inner walls of the skin causing hard and narrow arteries.It affects blood flow and creates severe life-threatening complications causing blockade in blood flow through the arteries. It creates problems in normal oxygen flow to the heart, lungs and other areas of the body and chest pain, leg pain, neck pain, headache,  heart attack and death of muscle cells take place causing permanent heart damage and stroke.

Monday, September 25, 2017

Arthritis in the elderly people

Arthritis i.e.joint inflammation is a very common disease from which the old people suffer in almost large numbers.There are many health conditions that affect the joints and body muscles of the old people.Arthritis is of nearly 100 types of which Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common ones.There is an aching pain in the joints when it is rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. Women are more affected in this disease.The joints, knees, and hips are usually affected by this type of arthritis.Rheumatoid arthritis is the inflammatory condition causing joint destruction, pain, and stiffness.This problem usually starts between the age of 45 to 65 years.

Dermatomyositis(DM) in the Elderly people

Dermatomyositis is one type of rare muscle inflammatory disease.It is to note that myopathy is a muscle disease and is known as myositis.Myositis is an inflammatory muscle disease.It mostly affects the muscles of the hips, thighs, upper arms, upper areas of the back, the shoulder and the neck.Nearly two times of women are affected by this disease than men.The majority number of people of the age of 50 years to 70 years and children of the age between 5 to 15 years are victims of this disease. Nearly two times of women/girls are affected by this disease than men/boys.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Osteoarthritis in the elderly people

Osteoarthritis is a joint problem in which there are stiffness and pain in the joints.  The causes of osteoarthritis are not completely known. Increase in body weight causes pressure on the knees and the hips and such increase in body weight increases the risk of causing osteoarthritis.

Thursday, August 31, 2017

Conductive hearing loss in the elderly people

Conductive hearing loss is a hearing problem. It causes blockage in the passing of sound waves through the outer ear, eardrum or middle ear to the inner ear. Normal hearing is of the range of 0 to 20 decibels while mild hearing loss ranges from 21 to 40 decibels, moderate hearing loss ranges from 41 to 55 decibels, moderately severe hearing loss ranges from 56 to 70 decibels, severe hearing loss ranges from 71 to 90 decibels and profound hearing loss is greater than 90 decibels.

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Color blindness in the elderly people

Color blindness is a problem that causes trouble in viewing red, green and blue colors or combination of them.People suffering from color blindness can not differentiate among different colors.It is known as color vision problem also.Elderly people loose vision power and gradually fail to differentiate among different colors.

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Colorectal cancer in the elderly people

We know that cancer is abnormal growth of cells that spread to other areas of the body. Colorectal cancer is also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer.It starts from the large intestine or the rectum.Liver and lungs are the most common sites of colorectal cancer. This problem is seen in elderly people from 50 years and above.This type of cancer has five stages as below:
 *Stage 0: Early stage of cancer in the innermost layer of the intestine;
 *Stage 1: Cancer in the inner layer of the colon;
 *Stage 2: Cancer that spreads in muscle wall of the colon;
 *Stage 3: Cancer that spreads to the lymph nodes;
 *Stage 4: Cancer that spreads to other organs of the body.
The cancer of the last stage is not a curable problem.Complications in this disease include colon blockage leading to bowel obstruction

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Atrial fibrillation in the Elderly people

Atrial fibrillation is a problem with irregular, rapid and abnormal heart beat increasing risks of stroke,heart disease, heart palpitation, fainting,short breathing,chest pain with risks of heart failure, dementia,etc.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Analplastic thyroid cancer in the elderly people

Analplastic thyroid cancer(ATC) is the most aggressive type of cancer.This type of cancer has poor forecast  and poor treatment facilities.Thyroid cancer  is of four categories namely Analplastic thyroid cancer,Papillary thyroid cancer,  Follicular thyroid cancer and Medullary thyroid cancer. Analplastic thyroid cancer can affect the elderly people of  65 years and above.Most people can survive for more than six months.Very few patients survive up to 5 to 6 years  in rare cases.This problem can develop after many years from radiation exposure. This type of cancer is inoperable.It is rare in younger people and children. Male people are more  attacked with this type of cancer than women. In course  of time,it develops in other areas of the body like bones,lungs and brain.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the elderly people

The largest blood vessel in the human body is the aorta. It carries and circulates blood from the heart to all other areas of the body like chest, arms, legs, abdomen, etc. The aortic walls bulge out like a small balloon and create a position known as Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA).Abdominal Aortic  Aneurysm(AAA) is not a problem creator all the time but a broken or ruptured aneurysm may be life-threatening.In fine, the aorta is the main circulator of the blood stream and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause life-threatening bleeding.
  Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms(AAA) are classified on the basis of size and speed of growth.The
 small or slow-growing Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is less than 5.5 centimeters and has lower risks of rupture which are considered by the physicians as safer than those with larger Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms larger than 5.5 centimeters are at higher risks of rupture leading to internal bleeding with other complications.